Sports are competitive physical activities that are governed by a set of rules. These rules can be objective or subjective. In most sports, the result is decided by a judge, who may score subjectively or on an objective basis.
Sports also offer influential representations of individuals, communities, and national identity politics. These representations are not only a source of entertainment for spectators, but also an essential part of national identities.
Sports are usually governed by a set of customs, ensuring fair competition. However, participants can break these rules to gain an advantage.
Emotional processes play an important role in defining the roles of athletes and coaches. They may occur prior to, during, or after a performance.
The relationship between sports and national identity is complex. Sports provide the opportunity for young people to socialize and develop important traits. On the other hand, they can help inculcate the desire to win at all costs.
The relationship between sports and national identity has evolved throughout history. It can be traced back to the ancient civilizations of the Aztecs and Egyptians, who played ball games. During the Renaissance, the elites of northern European societies preferred dances and ballet.
Throughout the 20th century, sports began to be marketed internationally. This was part of the larger globalization process. Moreover, the emergence of transnational cosmopolitan culture led to a range of international social movements.
Many universities have established centres for sociology of sports research. The German scholar Heinz Risse published a book on the subject in 1921.